Friday, March 13, 2020

A Guide to Abbreviations

A Guide to Abbreviations A Guide to Abbreviations A Guide to Abbreviations By Mark Nichol Abbreviations are a sometimes necessary evil, but with the power to employ them comes great responsibility. This post outlines types of abbreviations and associated guidelines. An abbreviation is a shortening of a word or phrase, either by truncation or by abridgement by way of using only the first letter of each word of the term in turn (though sometimes more than the first letter is included, and occasionally, in the interest of creating an easily pronounceable abbreviation, one or more words are not represented). In the case of truncation, a word is whittled down to the first letter or first several letters, or the first and last letters (and sometimes others). Thus, L or R might be used in place of left or right as a directional indicating positioning of people, place, or things in a caption for a photograph or other figure. Job titles are often abbreviated to the first few letters of a word as in military ranks (major and gen. for major and general) and political offices (sen. and rep. for senator and representative). Exceptions in the former category include sgt. for sergeant and capt. for captain. In American English, abbreviations for social titles usually reduce a word to its first and last letters, followed by a period, as in the case of Mr. and Dr., and common abbreviations follow this form (as in the case of hr. for hour, though the abbreviations for second and minute are the truncations sec. and min.). Two other types of abbreviation are the acronym and the initialism. In both categories, a string of words is reduced to (usually) the first letter of each word; the distinction is that an acronym, as the element -onym (Greek for â€Å"name† or â€Å"word†) indicates, is pronounced as a word, as in the case of NASA, whereas an initialism, as the name suggests, is sounded out letter by letter, as in FBI. Most people are not aware of (or do not give any thought to) the distinction, but it is important in this sense. Because acronyms are treated as words, they are not preceded by an article (one writes â€Å"NASA was established in 1958,† not â€Å"The NASA was established in 1958†); by contrast, an article precedes an initialism (as in â€Å"The FBI launched the investigation in January,† not â€Å"FBI launched the investigation in January†). Exceptions occur when an acronym is used adjectivally (â€Å"The NASA project is underway†) and in periodical headlines (â€Å"FBI Launches Investigation†). In American English, acronyms and initialisms are often distinguished by styling the former in small caps and the latter in full-size capital letters, though abbreviations of more than four letters are often, after long usage as capitalized terms, treated as regular words, as in the case of Nasdaq, a proper noun (an abbreviation of â€Å"National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations†) and radar (from â€Å"radio detection and ranging†). Unfamiliar acronyms and initialisms are usually introduced to readers in parentheses immediately after the first reference to the entity by its full name, after which the abbreviation alone is sufficient (or the abbreviation is simply used after the first reference without the parenthetical signal, as long as the next reference appears soon after the first one), but common abbreviations need no such introduction. However, whether an abbreviation is considered transparent or otherwise is up to a specific publication or publisher to decide, based on its readership’s familiarity with the term. (Companies should keep a record of such usage in a house style guide; see also this post.) Another consideration, though, is to avoid cluttering a piece of writing with numerous abbreviations, which smacks of jargon. If a term is used only occasionally, it may be better to spell it out in each case. Another strategy to avoid frequent repetition of acronyms or initialisms is to sometimes replace the term with a generic reference such as â€Å"the agency,† â€Å"the law,† â€Å"the program,† and so on. Writers should avoid redundancy in using acronyms and initialisms, where widespread usage obscures the wording of the phrase from which the abbreviation is formed, so that reference is too often made to, for example, ATM machines (the M stands for machine) and PIN numbers (number is represented by the N). â€Æ' A variation of use of acronyms is syllabic abbreviation, in which terms consist of parts of, or one or more syllables of, one or more words; examples include Interpol (â€Å"international police†) and nicknames for urban areas such as SoHo (denoting â€Å"south of Houston Street†) in New York City. In general, lowercase abbreviations include periods (as in the case of i.e., a.m., and m.p.h.), and uppercase abbreviations omit them (as with MD, US, and ABC). However, specialized publications, especially those pertaining to science and technology, often do not use periods in either case, and note that shorthand for metric terms is considered a system of symbols rather than abbreviations, so periods are never used with cm (centimeter) or kg (kilogram), for example. Certain treatments of initials in names are treated differently in some publications: According to The Chicago Manual of Style, the style guide of record for most book publishers and many publications, a letter space should separate two or more initials in a name, as in A. B. See. However, the Associated Press Style Book avoids spaces when possible, including in names. Initials used in lieu of an entire name, such as those for famous politicians and other public figures, are universally formatted without spaces or periods, as in JFK and MLK. Most publications and publishers do not use apostrophes when pluralizing an abbreviation, as in PCs and URLs. For some specialized terms, such as abbreviated terms for units of measure, no plural is indicated in the abbreviation (so, for example, lb. applies to one or more pounds); another exception is abbreviations in baseball: â€Å"Runs batted in,† for example, is abbreviated as RBI. Use of informal abbreviation (lulz and the like) has proliferated since the advent of online social media, but this trend has not been accepted into formal usage and should be avoided except in casual writing and in communication among family and friends. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Synonyms for â€Å"Leader†44 Resume Writing TipsFew vs. Several

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Economy - Essay Example The government debt increases due to budget deficits do no good but instead create complex problems for the economy and it drags the economy further away from growth. This is especially in the case of under developed economies as they are worse-off by such a situation. On the other hand, developed countries do have a cushion against such problems and endure the effects by strictly controlling the inflation through monetary policy. In case of developing economies, they have lesser reserves to back their position, while being more productive they still run continuous deficits (Charles, 1995). This invokes further activity, owing to the fact that the economy is below its potential output but usually is not managed adequately and thus results in demand pull or cost push inflation in different circumstances and hence these developing countries are seldom able to reap the benefits of their economic activity. The budget deficits are rooted from the time of the great depression of 1930s which was witnessed by and had strong influence on many economies worldwide before the Second World War though there were numerous reasons for the Great Depression beginning in 1929, including not only the structural weaknesses but also a series of certain other events. The declining demand in the economy laid down pressures on government and whilst they had to manage the decline in economic activity, the government expenditures eventually increased to accommodate these problems thus putting burdens over the budgets and eventually running deficits (Bernanke, 2007). Another reason stated had been the decline in international trade thus affecting many countries of the world whose economy depended on the international transactions. As stated by one of the famous analysts, the chain of events proceeded as follows (Fisher, 1933): Thus when the free hand didn’t work out, government started to play a pivotal role in the economic activity for the

Monday, February 10, 2020

Immigration and unemployment in canada Term Paper

Immigration and unemployment in canada - Term Paper Example he above figure shows that although Canada has been accommodating immigrants since the late 19th century, yet the number has drastically increased after the mid of the 20th century, specifically in the last two decades. (, 200-) mentioned in the same report that recent surveys have discovered that over 2 millions of Canadians are unemployed. The point of consideration is â€Å"if the increasing number of immigrants has influenced the number of employment opportunities for the native Canadians.† There are various factors that play their role in linking immigration and employment status in Canada. Canada is spread on a large piece of land, naturally enriched with natural resources. On the contrary, the low fertility rate of Canadian natives is not compatible with the number of workers required for the establishment and development of industries needed to make use of Canada’s natural resources for the well-being of the country. It is this characteristic feature of the Canadian culture that necessitates the influx of immigrants to overcome the deficiency of skilled workers in order to ensure economic growth and development of the country. This, undoubtedly ma y cause an apparent job-deficit for the native Canadians, yet the practice is likely to bear fruitful results in the long run as a result of a development in the industries followed by increased GDPs in the years to come. Also, the benefits of immigration outweigh the harms it may cause to the native Canadians in that the development in business results in increased facilities in no time and a better life-style for the Canadians to enjoy. Besides, Canadian policies tend to eliminate fears of economic drawback on the part of the native Canadians by creating a difference between the wages of a native and an immigrant working parallel to each other in terms of skill and position. Canadian policies tend to adopt a biased approach when setting wages in favor of the natives, who get higher

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Alchemy, Compare Paracelsus Essay Example for Free

Alchemy, Compare Paracelsus Essay Neither Francis Bacon nor Paracelsus claims to be a professional alchemist, however, they both portray a strong defence as to why it is imperative to divulge the mysteries of nature. Both readings assert alchemy as a way of discovering the true forms of things. Paracelsus uses alchemy as a reference point of the past in defence for his use of medicine, whereas Bacon asserts through inductive reasoning that this ‘art of logic’ is how ‘we conquer nature’ (Bacon 1620). What they both get right is their concept of alchemy as an art, and how it is seen as ‘the art of discovery’ (Dawkins 1999). f the divine power. Bacon has two readings that both discuss the matter of alchemy, however, in diverse ways. Firstly, let us acknowledge his insisting on inductive reasoning. Essentially, Bacon presumes through inductive reasoning several interpretations of nature; he chooses this argumentative approach because of his inferences of the unobserved patterns of the future from particulars observed in the past. He suggests an entirely new system of logic, which is based on induction, rather than on syllogism. In fact, Bacon rejects proof by syllogism as it ‘operates in confusion and lets nature slip out of our hands’ (Bacon 1620). Through alchemy, we can conquer nature; overcome the ‘difficult and dark things’ (Bacon 1620). What’s more is the role he suggests of observational experiment as prerequisites for the construction of scientific theory (Bacon 1620). Paracelsus, on the other hand, convinces us that alchemy is ‘nothing, but the art, which can separate the useful from the useless, and transmute it into its final substance and its ultimate essence’ (Paracelsus 1951). He deduces that, without alchemy, there would not be medicine. So we can conclude that when he defends alchemy, he defends medicine, rather than the revelation of the mysteries of nature. In his guide, Bacon discusses how we can teach our minds to be receptive to truth and how our minds can invoke illusions, perceptual illusions – idols of the tribe (Mulder 2000)that are inherent in the nature of the intellect itself. Our senses are how we inspect and analyse the nature of this real world (Bacon 1620), and it is within our subconsciousness that we devise things in certain ways. Our senses affect the way in which we perceive shapes, colours and metals. Whereas Paracelsus talks about physical changes, like from lead to gold. Did he then consider himself to be a ‘natural magician’, who explored the secrets of nature(Gal 2013)? Moreover, he notes the mysteries of nature and how alchemy attempts to reveal and ‘brings to light’ (Paracelsus 1951) what is hidden. There is physical transmutation, an experience, which leads to the unveiling of truth and disproves mystery. What we also should take into consideration is the role of God and how His influence has affected their respective analysis In Bacon’s The Making of Gold, he addresses the negative view on alchemy due to incorrect implementation. He notes that if done in a proper manner with axioms, then it would work and people would be more accepting of it. Similarly, Paracelsus believes his medicine is the only way to recognize and overcome diseases. ‘Physicians who say that the prescriptions (he) writes are poison’ (Paracelsus 1951), are lacking in understanding of natural forces. The mysterium of nature created by God is implemented through alchemy. As a consequence, are alchemists seen to be meddling with God’s creation? If they are, it is supposedly both futile and heretical, and we’ll say: dangerous. Indeed God tasks man with completing his natural creation, for ‘man is nature’s agent and interpreter’(Bacon 1620), however, can we say the transmutation of base metals to gold is a way for mankind to alter the ways of God’s creation, perhaps even replace God’s intentions? For example, the ‘spirit of metal be quickened, and the tangible parts opened’(Bacon 1627) leads to the revelation of gold, hence the alchemist reveals great virtues that ‘lie hidden in nature’(Paracelsus 1951). Here, Bacon presents us with two types of worlds in his Guide to the Interpretation of Nature; nature, free and unconstrained, and nature, confined and harassed when forced from its own condition by art and human agency (Bacon 1627). Essentially, Bacon argues that nature is more likely to reveal its full potential through the ‘harassment of art’, rather than in ‘her own proper freedom’(Bacon 1627). Although Paracelsus asserts that alchemy is indispensable, Bacon accepts the understanding of nature that upheld the theoretical principles of alchemy (Linden 1974). He embraced a similarity of sorts, but one divested in the tremendously complicated system of analogies (those referencing God, included) adopted by Paracelsus and the magicians.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Leadership Esentials :: Leader Leading Management

Although some people treat the term's "manager ship" and "leadership" as synonyms, the two should be distinguished. As a matter of fact, there can be leaders of completely unorganized groups, but there can be managers, as conceived here, only where organized structures create roles. (Main, 1987) Separating leadership from manager ship has important analytical advantages. It permits leadership to be singled out for study without the encumbrance of qualifications relating to the more general issue of manager ship. Leadership is an important aspect of managing. (Kotler, 1990) As this paper will show the ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to being an effective manager, also, undertaking the other essentials of managing-doing the entire managerial job-has an important bearing on ensuring that a manager will be an effective leader. Managers must exercise all the function of their role in order to combine human and material resources to achieve objectives. The key to doing this is the existence of a clear role and a degree of discretion or authority to support manager's actions. The essence of leadership is follower ship. (Haller & Til, 1982) In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader. Moreover, people tend to follow those whom they see as providing a means of achieving their own desires, wants, and needs. Leadership and motivation are closely interconnected. By understanding motivation, one can appreciate better what people want and why they act as they do. Also, as noted in the previous chapter, leaders may not only respond to subordinates, motivations but also arouse or dampen them by means of the organizational climate they develop. Both these factors are as important to leadership as they are to manager ship. Defining Leadership: Leadership has different meaning to various authors. (Bass, 1981) Leadership is defined as influence, that is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals ideally, people should be encouraged to develop not only willingness to work but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence. Zeal is ardor, earnestness, and intensity in the execution of work; confidence reflects experience and technical ability. Leaders act to help a group attain objectives through the maximum application of its capabilities. They do not stand behind a group to push and prod, they place themselves before the group as they facilitate progress and inspire the group to accomplish organizational goals.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Annoying Shoppers

Johnny Bullock English 104 Bowman December 5, 2012 Annoying Shoppers Grocery shopping can be a very interesting experience. It seems like nothing more than a quick and easy chore at first. You go in, throw whatever you want into your cart, pay and then get out. Its almost relaxing, that is if the grocery store is completely empty. Unfortunately, there are always those other shoppers. The ones who think they own the place or something. They’re in just about every grocery store in America. You know who I’m talking about, that one parent- usually a mom- with a kid who just so happens to be screaming bloody murder.Also, everyone knows a bad cart driver when they see one, not to mention the label readers. And finally, probably the worst of them all, the Couponers. If you’re like me and you like to get your grocery shopping done as fast and productive as possible, these four shoppers are your worst enemies. Imagine yourself going to the grocery store. You drive into th e parking lot, circle around for a minute or so just to find that perfect spot as close to the front door as possible. You gather the things you need: grocery list, phone, money, credit cards etc, and exit your car.As you walk by the automatic doors to go get a cart, the doors open and that’s when you hear it. That ear piercing, glass breaking, nails-on-a-chalkboard howl that comes from a small child no taller than your knee. As the screaming stops- only for an instant as the heathen catches its breath- and starts back up again, you find yourself blankly staring at the mother of this child as you pass by each other. You can’t help but think, â€Å"can you please take some control of your kid? This is a public place not your home! † but decide its better to just keep walking.Until you realize that you have completely forgotten what you were shopping for thanks to that bellowing kid. Good thing you brought a list right? The doors close behind you and the screaming fades. You have but a moment of peace before you look up and ZOOM!! Some guy decides its a good idea to use his cart as a scooter, almost hitting you as he whizzes over to the produce section. Now, what in the world would make him think that’s a good idea? The grocery store is not a skatepark, and I’m certain that its small enough to easily get from point A, to point B just by walking.Is it possible that he’s just looking for a little more excitement in his life? Maybe, he’s the same as you or me and wants to get his shopping done as fast as he can. Whatever the reason, people like him need to learn some courtesy and realize that there are other people in the world. You are now able to get started and pick up all the things on your list, you decide to turn down the â€Å"organics† aisle figuring it would be a shorter path to the front of the store. Little did you know this would be your worst mistake of the whole trip. Walking down the row of heal thy foods are some of the worst grocery shoppers there are, the label-readers.These are the health-nuts who will literally stand in the middle of the aisle and read every nutrition fact, ingredient, percentage and amount of grams per serving there are in a caesar salad. Then, as if it wasn’t already bad enough, they will continue to put that salad down and grab another salad made by a different company in order to compare the labels. Now, this wouldn't be such a problem if they didn’t decide to park their cart on one side of the aisle and stand on the other side reading the labels, stopping you dead in your tracks.Obviously label-readers must think its their world and the rest of us are just living in it. In which case, they need a wake up call. But regardless of the fact, you don’t want to be rude so you politely say â€Å"excuse me† and proceed to the check out counter. The check out counter, the final stretch of your shopping experience. All there is l eft to do now is pay for your items and go. It seems like this should be the easiest part right? Wrong. Unfortunately, you have two items too many to use the â€Å"express lane,† and all but one of the â€Å"self checkout† machines are out-of-order.So, after carefully scanning each regular check-out line, you finally spot the one with what seems like the shortest line and casually stroll over there to wait your turn. What you didn’t see, was that the lady you decided to stand behind had the entire store in her cart! Little did you know that she was the worst shopper of them all- the Couponer. This is the bargain-shopper who’s annoying actions are broken down into three steps. First, this shopper will decide to pack her cart so full that the pile of groceries in her cart is taller than she is!Inevitably, creating a longer waiting time for you. Next, she will stand there, stare at the clerk’s computer screen and argue about the 2-for-1 price for ever y item that doesn’t match up exactly the way she wants. Finally, after all her groceries are scanned, bagged and carted, the couponer will then proceed to dig through her entire purse searching for every coupon she has ever saved over the past year for that one shopping trip. As if she hasn’t already wasted enough of everyone’s time.It is at this point of your experience when you realize that any hope of an efficient and speedy shopping trip was just tossed out the window. With all of the annoying people that decide to go to the grocery store, shopping can easily turn from a quick and easy chore into one of the most tedious experiences of your life. I encourage you, as a shopper, to watch out for people like this the next time you go shopping. Unless you just so happen to be one of these people, in which case I will be watching out for you next time I take a trip to the grocery store.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Jane Austens Emma - Character Analysis of Protagonist

Emma Woodhouse: Awake or Dreaming? A dream. A world where ideas run wild and imagination is the primary mode of thought. Reality is a faraway distance. Eventually, the dream comes to an end as reality creeps into sleep and the fantasy finishes. The story of Jane Austen’s Emma is one of a similar account. Emma Woodhouse, the main character, has an active imagination that causes her to loose sight of reality like getting lost in dreaming. Her imagination and â€Å"disposition to think a little too well of herself† causes Emma to be emotionally arrogant and skews her perception of other characters (Austen, 1). Throughout the novel, Emma struggles to develop emotionally because her dream-derived visions of those around her and her obsession with†¦show more content†¦She even goes so far as keeping Harriet from marrying Mr. Martin, who both truly loves her and is closer to her in social status. While it is ultimately Harriet’s choice to decline Mr. Martin, Emma uses her popularity to influence the decision. â€Å"[T]hough Emma continued to protest against any assistance being wanted [from Harriet], it was in fact given in the formation of every sentence† (34). Caught up in her self-appointed role as cupid, Emma ignores the possibility that Harriet and Mr. Martin could ever live happily together. Upon hearing of Harriet’s rejection to Mr. Martin, Knightley suspects Emma’s attempt to produce a match between Harriet and Mr. Elton. He warns Emma about the unlikelihood of Mr. Elton reducing himself to Harriet’s inferior position through marriage. While his warning causes Emma to momentarily doubt herself, she quickly erases these thoughts with â€Å"a satisfaction which settled her with her own mind, and convinced her†¦ she had done nothing which woman’s friendship and woman’s feelings would not justify† (43). Evidently, Emma is easily able to dismiss Mr. Knightley’s rational suggestions, satisfied with her own more amusing ideas. She remains confident in her own imaginative schemes, letting that govern her conduct. As the novel progresses and Mr. Elton reveals Emma as the true object of his affection, Emma’s prediction and meddling proves to be a failure. In reflecting on her behavior, Emma notes,Show MoreRelatedJane Austens Emma - Character Analysis of Protagonist1656 Words   |  7 PagesEmma Woodhouse: Awake or Dreaming? A dream. A world where ideas run wild and imagination is the primary mode of thought. Reality is a faraway distance. Eventually, the dream comes to an end as reality creeps into sleep and the fantasy finishes. The story of Jane Austen’s Emma is one of a similar account. Emma Woodhouse, the main character, has an active imagination that causes her to loose sight of reality like getting lost in dreaming. 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